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June 18, 2015 - No Comments!

Imminent Body is part of FILE Video Art 2015!

I am very honoured that my work Imminent Body (2014) was selected for FILE Video Art 2015, which is part of FILE Festival Sao Paulo 2015:

FILE - Electronic Language International Festival is a New media art festival that usually takes place in three different cities of Brazil: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre ... It is the biggest art & technology festival in Brazil, and it serves as a lead indicator of the plurality of the work created in the interactive art field not only nationally but also internationally.

  • FILE Media Art presents digital works that propose different ways to explore new technologies as ways of creation and interaction. Films, sites, web and software art show that with digital art, technology can be more than its usual functionality. (Source: FILE on Wikipedia)

The HUGE show is on from the 15th of june to the 15th of july 2015 at the FIESP Cultural Centre, Ruth Cardoso Av. Paulista, 1313 - Cerqueira César, São Paulo - SP, 01311-200, Brazil

Thanks very much to the organisation for their interest and space.

I will let you know if I manage to be there, hope you enjoy the show and let me know if you are around!

 


 

 

Estoy muy honrada de que mi trabajo Imminent Body (Cuerpo Inminente, 2014) fuera seleccionado para el FILE Video Arte 2015, parte de FILE Festival Sao Paulo 2015:

FILE - Festival Internacional de Lenguage Electrónico es un festival de nuevos medios que normalmente se realiza en tres diferentes ciudades de Brasil: San Pablo, Río de Janeiro y Puerto Alegre... Es el festival de arte y tecnología más grande de Brasil, y sirve como indicador de la pluralidad del trabajo creado en el campo del arte interactivo no sólo nacional sino también internacionalmente.

  • FILE Media Art presenta trabajos digitales que proponen diferentes maneras de explorar las nuevas tecnologías como formas de creación e interacción. Filmes, sitios, web y software muestran que con el arte digital, la tecnología puede ser más que su funcionalidad usual. (Fuente: FILE en Wikipedia (en Inglés))

Esta GRAN muestra permanece abierta desde el 15 de junio al 15 de julio del 2015 en el Centro Cultural FIESP, Ruth Cardoso  Av. Paulista, 1313 - Cerqueira César, São Paulo - SP, 01311-200, Brasil

Muchas gracias a la organización por su interés y el espacio. 

Les haré saber si logro ir, espero que disfruten la muestra y cuéntenme si andan por ahí!

April 5, 2015 - No Comments!

I will be showing new work at Ventura Lambrate 2015!

Hello!

I'm very excited to tell you that I will be showcasing the project I have been working on for the last couple of busy months in Chile at Ventura Lambrate 2015

Please stay tuned for more info on HATCH, a furniture and textiles collection that will be on display at the Minini Gallery between the 14 and 19 of april, as part of a super exciting show prepared with my lovely colleagues from All things in Between

See you in Milan!

Ventura_Lambrate_420x2701

March 23, 2015 - No Comments!

Ciclo Textil UC – Charla

Imminent Body: inteligencia artificial y usabilidad en los textiles del futuro

Este jueves 26 de marzo tendré el honor de dar inicio al ciclo de charlas "Textiles Locales" en la escuela de Diseño UC con una presentación enfocada al diseño especulativo y el futuro de los materiales textiles según el estado actual de la tecnología y sus proyecciones, todo esto basado en mi proyecto de maestría en Textile Futures Imminent Body.

La charla es gratuita y abierta y están todos cordialmente invitados. Si quieren asegurar su cupo pueden hacerlo en este link

Agradezco al departamento de extensión de la escuela por el espacio y la difusión.

Nos vemos el jueves en la FADEU!

 

Imminent Body: artificial intelligence and usability in the textiles of the future

This upcoming Thursday 26 of march I'll have the honour to kick-start the cycle of talks "Local Textiles" at the Design school from the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. The presentation will have a focus on speculative design and it is an invitation to reflect on the future of textile materials according to the current state of technology and its projections, all based on my MA project for Textile Futures Imminent Body.

The talk is free and you are all cordially invited. If you would like to reserve a place you can do it in this link.

Thanks to the extension department of the school for the space and diffusion.

See you on Thursday at the FADEU

 

 

 

January 16, 2015 - No Comments!

Sí, estoy en Chile – Yes, I am in Chile

HolidaysInChileTrabajando para usted, pronto novedades!

Working for you, updates soon!

"Cerro del Plomo from the south-west" by Tijs Michels - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cerro_del_Plomo_from_the_south-west.jpeg#mediaviewer/File:Cerro_del_Plomo_from_the_south-west.jpeg   - Edited version.

November 27, 2014 - No Comments!

CLASE ABIERTA en Chile – OPEN CLASS in Chile

ClaseFAU_webDT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mañana jueves 27 de noviembre a las 15:00 horas estaré presentando por primera vez en Chile (y en castellano!) Imminent Body (Cuerpo Inminente) en una clase abierta en la sala F13 de la FAU (Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Chile).

Están todos invitados. Muchas gracias a Rodrigo Dueñas por gestionar esta clase y al Departamento de Diseño por el espacio.

¡Nos vemos en la FAU!


 

Tomorrow at 15:00 hrs I will be presenting Imminent Body for the first time in Chile (and in Spanish!) in an open class at FAU (the College of Architecture and Urbanism from University of Chile).

All invited. Thanks to Rodrigo Dueñas for arranging this class and to the Department of Design for the space.

See you at FAU tomorrow!

November 9, 2014 - No Comments!

DAWN B. HALETA – INTERVIEW AT CATALOGODISEÑO (CHILE)

This interview was originally published in Spanish by Catálogodiseño (07/11/14) LINK

 

Dawn B. Haleta: from mixed media arts to the Biomimicry of the Sun

 ‘By utilizing the brackets of the rising and setting of the sun, this clock does not over extend itself. In this sense it signifies our humanness and need for a society that is not ‘always on’. ‘ (Haleta, D.B., 2014)

Dawn B.Haleta moves with comfort in the waters of theory. Maybe is her fine arts background what plays a key part in her ability to contemplate for long periods certain phenomena that for the majority go unnoticed, and maybe it is this what characterises so strongly her practise as designer. Biomimicry of the Sun marks her entry to the world of objects design; she does it bringing the vast experience acquired while developing visuals and animation along with Michael Haleta, the creation of experimental knitwear and the work on interiors for retail.

With Biomimicry of the Sun, Dawn addresses and questions certain conventions that rule our everyday life, such as a standardised time tracking system or how influenced we are –despite living in highly artificial environments– by the different types of sunlight and its different stages throughout the day and year cycles.

Haleta invites us to go back to our time of “worshippers of the sun” to review our daily cycles and recognise ourselves in them; she proposes a lifestyle more accord to these biological clocks which, despite seeming forgotten, keep influencing our biological functions more than what we think.


 

DT: How did your background as an artist inform Biomimicry of the Sun and how does it make your design practice different?

DH: For years I worked collaboratively with Michael Haleta on graphical sound and visual animations. Here the timeline became my medium. With so many contemporary options for integrating audio and motion into objects today through sensors and other interactive controls, I wondered what it would be like to transfer the timeline from the editing screen to a machine… a device. This was part of the process that informed Biomimicry of the Sun.

 

DT: How did the project change your relationship with the sun?

DH: I am more observant of the changing sunlight, the patterns the sun creates, the temperature, the color of the light. These things have become more relevant to me now, partially because they have become my material. The seasons change, the brackets of light change I view the passage of time in measurements of fast and slow as opposed to long and short.

 

DT: Based on your research of chronobiology, what would you say is the type of relationship we currently establish with the sun?

DH: The light from the sun is something humans evolved with over time, it changes in color temperature, drives our internal clocks and directs every organ in our body to do a job. A signal from the different kind of sunlight at different times of the day is sent to the pineal gland in our brain to instruct hormones to be sent through the body throughout the day. But we don’t get the same signals from most of today’s artificial light, so our bodies are suffering because of it.

 

DT: How do you see your practice in the near future?

DH: I will continue to look for new timelines to work with. To integrate them into today’s active lifestyles, asking how can we deal with time in a society that travels at outrageously fast speeds. Where will nature and technology merge? I would like to continue to use light and optic lenses throughout the process.

 

DT: Can you tell us an anecdote that you remember from the process of Biomimicry of The Sun? How did it change the process if it did.

DH: In Februrary of 2014 I moved into a flat in East London with four sky lights and 2 big glass doors at either end. During the day I would watch the sun literally move from the East to the West to sunset across the interior space. Shadows were cast throughout the rooms, watching the motion of the light and shadows played a large part in how I designed BioSun. The light that is projected around a room became a method of tracking time.

 

DT: Tell us about the ideal place where you would like to see the lighting piece you designed for the project. You must have something in mind don’t you?

DH: The work really has a strong relationship to the history of the sun but also, industrial clocks and watches. I would love a room at Greenwich Observatory to show the work for a week, or a year perhaps?! Events would be scheduled around the winter and summer solstice. Meals will be organized where we can‘watch’ the sun set. Also on the agenda is a lecture about Chronobiology and a history of time tracking.

 

DT: What is the change you expect to cause in the viewers/users of the lamp?

DH: Biomimicry of the Sun was designed to be a clock that uses an alternative system to numbers to track the passage of the day. We rely so heavily on standardized time keeping of a 24-hour system and we jam pack our work and every task possible into that span of time. But actually if we change our focus from condensing our ‘to-do’ lists into compounded bits and attempt to expand our understanding of the passage of time we might experience life much differently. Perhaps our ideas of what we value could change.

 

©Daniela Toledo 2014 for Catálogodiseño, Chile

October 21, 2014 - No Comments!

Zuzana GomboSova – Interview at Catalogodiseño (Chile)

This interview was originally published in Spanish by Catálogodiseño (20/10/14) LINK

 

Zuzana Gombošova: the Slovak designer behind a world of bacteria and Victorian tales.

The work of the Slovak designer Zuzana Gombošova is like her: curious, interesting, explosive and unexpected, but overall brilliant; Gombošova is one of those persons that appear every certain time to dazzle with their geniality and spark. Leaving conventions and preconceptions aside to face her projects her work becomes a maze full of little corners to explore.

  She has done a series of fashion collections and an MA project (Invisible Resources, Gombošova,Z. 2014) that gives an ingenious and refreshing twist to technologies so frequently visited such as biopolymers and 3d printing. During the time the MA lasted (a bit less tan two years) I witnessed her invent and manufacture machines in hours, learn to program an Arduino processor in a similar time scope and almost simultaneously, figuring out a way to make stunning illustrations that leave more than one person impressed.

  At her young age Zuzana Gombošova has plenty of edges that will give others something to talk about and I am positive her vision will guide many young designers interested in dedicating their careers to the more experimental lodes of design, sometimes even more necessary to enrich the exercise of the discipline that the others devoted to developing ready-to-sell products.


DT: How or when did you become fascinated by bacteria?

ZG: :- D

I think I became really fascinated once I started thoroughly studying microbiology. Sometimes during last year I came across several design and art related projects where living organisms played vital role in the creation process and were presented as a possible future technology.

    I began reveling their diversity, functions and I got a more holistic perspective of our co-dependence on each other as biological species. Suddenly I stopped looking at them as gross microscopic creatures causing us disease and evoking a feeling of dirt and began to perceive them as an essential part of the planet's ecosystem and evolution. From there on, I began to slowly reveal my way of working with bacteria as a design tool, resource or media.

    I created a parallel world in which bacteria became essential part of manufacturing and processing, dividing them into groups according to their capabilities, functions and source.

DT: What made you decide to “migrate” from fashion and textiles and how have Invisible Resources influenced your current practice.

ZG: I think my deviation from the area of textiles and fashion per se started the very moment I enrolled my MA studies at Textile Futures. As anybody else, I also expected I would mainly focus on textiles as a main area of study but the course led me towards the exploration of completely different way of looking at the design practice. I started to think much more about materials and their importance in the design process and that naturally sparked curiosity in me. I wanted to cross those boundaries fashion and textiles had and see design as an idea rather than a product.

    The "migration", as you call it, was a slow and intuitive process for me. I learned to go more in depth and think about context when working on my projects and that meant not limiting myself with constraints that conventional understanding of fashion and textiles carried.

    Working on the Invisible Resources taught me numerous skills. It s difficult to talk about the character of my current practice yet, as it has been only few months since I finished working on my graduation project. The practice is being formed now and I think I will only be able to talk about it once it is fully running and I will be able to reflect on what I learned, experienced and what has changed in my approach to work.

DT: I have always been curious about your signature “dark” aesthetics, including the blood project (MANfacture, Gombošova,Z. 2013). Is there any strong aesthetic influence you can recall or is it just a personal distillation of several things?

ZG: Well, I think it is a combination of both. I have been a huge fan of dark Victorian tales for many years and in a way they have inspired almost all of my recent projects. For some time I have been looking for a way of my own re-interpretation of them for the modern context.

    I think the formation of this direction started sometimes in 2011 when I was working on a collection of apparel designs called Obey. I think many people associate "dark" with something negative. I don t necessarily think it should be understood that way. Thinking in "dark " directions made me think about  different approach to work. It' s not necessarily about problem solving and presenting a better future, it becomes more about what if…..Human nature and psyche is rather complicated and for me it was interesting and liberating to start thinking about let's say "less likely" possibilities for the future. And when we start thinking about the "less likely" to be possible, we often go to the more hidden and mysterious thoughts. They evoke darker aesthetics in me. Dark, because it's something intriguing...peculiar, but not negative.

DT: What is your vision about technology and its domestic usage in the mid future?(10 years)

ZG: Hmmm…..I think technology is already a very essential part of our lives. Our grandparents use Whatsapp, iPads and Skype. What else is there to say ? :- D

    I think in the future we will gradually stop perceiving technology as technology. It will become something very natural. So natural we won't even realise it s technology who's doing the job.

    It is very exciting for me to imagine the role and perception of technology in different cultural and social backgrounds. So far it's been only technology. But gradually technology merges with biology….and that might give rise to completely different products, environments and even types of consciousness. I know I might sound a little bit confusing at the moment, but I do believe there is something yet unimaginable waiting for us in connection with technology in future. It's an evolution of its own kind.

DT: How do you relate to technology today?

ZG: I still find it difficult to relate to it sometimes. I am from the generation and geography that is familiar with technology and uses it, however I still do find it relatively alien at times. Technology of today is more intelligent, smoother, smaller and definitely faster than it used to be.

    It makes our lives easier and more complicated at the same time. We are bound to live faster and often, I think, we are also slaves of technology.

    I think learning more about how technology works made me less scared of it . Before the Invisible Resources I was purely a technology consumer. I am still mostly a consumer, but having an experience of the actual "kitchen work" helped me think about it more critically and objectively.

DT: Did you know you were such a good hacker before starting Invisible Resources?

ZG: Hahaha….thank you for the compliment. I did reveal many unexpected skills and capabilities I thought I didn't have during working on the project. I also tried many things that didn't work and I hope I never have to do them again.

    I don't think I m an exceptionally good hacker, but I would like to improve and try to hack many other devices. It's fun.

    Until back then I perceived electronic devices as ready-made, unmodifiable objects. I didn't understand much from the world of electronics. I still can't say I do, but I am much braver and have some experience already, which helps.

DT: What do you expect from your practice in the next couple of years?

ZG: In the next couple of years I would like to work in the field of design research.

    I hope I will be able to keep on working on the projects that are interesting for me professionally as well as personally. I hope I will be working with people that I will learn a lot from and I hope one day I will be officially recognised for my weirdness 🙂

    One fortuneteller once told me I will be learning until the age of 45. As long as her prediction is true, I will be happy in my practice.

©Daniela Toledo 2014 for Catálogodiseño, Chile

Zuzana GomboSova, portrait by Zevgi Kaymak

October 21, 2014 - No Comments!

Series of interviews for Catalogodiseño (Chile)

I recently started collaborating with the Chilean website Catálogodiseño (Designcatalogue). The first one was a report of our participation with I Saw The Future at Designersblock 2014 (link to post in Spanish) and more recently a small series of interviews to some of my fellow designers whom I had the chance to share with the last two years in London.

The focus of these written pieces is to unveil part of the motivations and interests I consider to be key for their identity as designers. Each interview is made in English and it has tailored questions according to the designer, I then translate the piece to Spanish and Catalogodiseño publishes them on their website.

I will publish each one of these interviews in English in my blog in case you don't read Spanish : ) and the link to the published version in Spanish. It has been a lot of fun so far, I hope you enjoy them!

 

 

October 7, 2014 - No Comments!

NEWS – Designersblock, Talk at 100%Design and +

I have been a bit busy these last two weeks so I wasn't able to update this website properly, specially in regards to the recent London Design Festival.

In addition to I Saw The Future, the collective show we co-organised with some former classmates from the MA at Designersblock, I was lucky enough to be invited to show at 100%Design. It was a bit of a marathonic week but overall an amazing opportunity to present the project in two very different and challenging contexts.

First Designersblock: we had a blast. It was a fantastic experience and a chance to share our projects with a public mostly linked to design and the creative industries. Thanks to the Designersblock team and all the other exhibitors for making us feel so welcomed and for their interest and respect for our work. We were featured in Inhabitat's selection of best of Designersblock 2014 so hooray!

Now, 100%Design.

The show I was invited to take part in was Graduate Talent of The Future and it was co-curated by 100%Design and Hèloïse Parke, from the prestigious Aram Gallery in London. The group of graduates was very diverse and it did help to create a "hub" of more experimental work along with the Design Futures stand, as part of the International Pavillion at the Earls Court exhibition centre.

As another exciting and very surprising event, I was invited to share the stage with the always interesting Gigi Barker for the talk Design Futures: How Rethinking Materials Will Reshape Product Design organised by Kingston University and the Design Museum.

Again, an excellent experience thanks to the organisation from both 100%Design and the team from Kingston University.

I wrote a report about I Saw The Future for the Chilean webpage specialised in design Catalogodiseno that you can find here (in Spanish).

 

Design Futures by Kingston University

September 3, 2014 - No Comments!

Techno-animism on Mousse magazine 37

Mark Leckey, GreenScreenVegetables, 2011 on Mousse magazine 37

This is a very interesting article on Techno-animism. It was one of the sources of consultation when writing my critical text handed in earlier this year. If you are interested in learning about the topic and getting a more concrete perspective about it then I definitely recommend you to read it.

It is available in Italian and English HERE.

 

Este es un artículo muy interesante sobre Tecno animismo. Es una de las fuentes que consulté mientras escribí el texto crítico que entregué un poco antes este año. Si están interesados en saber algo más sobre el tema desde una perspectiva más concreta entonces definitivamente recomiendo leerlo.

Está disponible desde el sitio de Mousse en italiano e inglés ACÁ. 

August 1, 2014 - No Comments!

My MA project Imminent Body was featured in the super cool Artists & Algorists !

Thanks for the very nice post. Please visit their page to read more about my project and browse among the other interesting areas and projects they cover related to technology and new paths for arts and design.

 

Mi proyecto de MA Imminent Body (Cuerpo Inminente) fue destacado en el sitio super cool Artists & Algorists.

Gracias por el muy buen artículo. Visiten su página para leer más de mi proyecto y revisar las otras áreas y proyectos que cubren relativos a tecnología y nuevos caminos para el arte y el diseño.

July 2, 2014 - No Comments!

NEW PROJECT – Pulse by Nissan

Last year (2013) in May I had the chance to present this exciting project at Nissan Design Europe as part of the MA Textile Futures (now Material Futures) course. I wasn't able to upload it before because of the privacy agreement but finally here it is.

The name of the project was Emerging Cities / Emerging Trends and the idea was, as the name indicates, to explore the emerging behaviours and scenarios in cities that are now witnessing accelerated growth.

Fulfiling a personal fascination with spies I chose Moscow between three cities (Lagos, Nairobi and Moscow) and you can see the results here.

Enjoy!

 

El año pasado (2013) en mayo tuve la oportunidad de presentar este interesante proyecto en las oficinas de Nissan Design Europe como parte del MA Textile Futures (ahora Material Futures). No podía publicarlo antes por motivos de privacidad pero finalmente acá está.

El nombre del proyecto era Emerging Cities / Emerging Trends (Ciudades emergentes / Tendencias Emergentes) y la idea era, tal como el nombre lo indica, explorar los patrones de comportamiento y contextos emergentes en ciudades que presencian un crecimiento acelerado.

Satisfaciendo una fascinación personal con los espías escogí Moscú entre tres ciudades (Lagos, Nairobi y Moscú) y los resultados los pueden ver acá.

Espero lo disfruten.

June 30, 2014 - No Comments!

IMMINENT BODY – 2057

Timeframe for the project with stills from 2001 and Blade Runner

Timeframe for the project with stills from 2001 and Blade Runner. Extract from critical text handed in on May 2014

 

I used the two movies I consider to be more successful in terms of defining a specific year for the project.

It could not be less ​than 37 years but as 2014 + 37 = 2051 that sounds a bit weak or "too near". We are conditioned in a way to remember certain numbers better than others. According to Pythagoras' number theory both movies' years are masculine years (even). I decided for 2057 because seven (7) or Heptad is considered a perfect number. It also has among its names Fortune and Occasion "because it occurs casually and opportunely to everything".1

So, a little bit about the scenario in 2057 and the pieces I developed for the project:

What can happen with society if it is now forced to interact and understand things and devices in a different way?

How can textiles enable us to envision our ability to comprehend the boundaries and outcomes of the interaction between conscious materials and us? ​

The piece focuses its attention in materials now considered as objects and what is a device. The dialogue we will be able to have with materials that are no longer obedient executors of our will but a more autonomous entity that will demand different ways of handling and tools that suit this new nature in order to work with them.

 

June 27, 2014 - No Comments!

IMMINENT BODY – TIMELINES

June 27, 2014 - No Comments!

IMMINENT BODY – Secret Tumblr revealed!

And continuing with the Imminent Body fever I can now show you the secret repository I kept throughout the project.

I used it to store references and it tells a bit about the visual and aesthetic journey of the project. You can find a wide variety of references, from Charles Burns and Daniel Clowes' quotes to stunning images of Yohji Yamamoto or Hussein Chalayan's work.

It is here: imminentbody.tumblr.com . Please feel free to drop by and use the references you need or to add me as your Tumblr contact 😉

June 27, 2014 - No Comments!

This is the book I handed in as part of the final material for MA Textile Futures.

The cover is made of 100% linen fabric, screenprinted at Central Saint Martins in London and it has the wonderful logo designed by Comunas Unidas for the project in bright white paste.

The font used is Australis and the white paper is Monadnock 118 gsm.

The two copies were printed and bound in London by myself and they include two folding timelines that I will soon upload as larger images for you to see them.

Thanks to Hugo Fleming and Cristian Lorca and to Imogen at the dye and print workshop in CSM.

June 27, 2014 - No Comments!

IMMINENT BODY – Work in Progress video

This video shows the concept behind my project Imminent Body.

What if Artificial Intelligence becomes a reality in the mid future? We may be able to see it as part of our everyday objects and materials that we see today as "dumb" will transform into conscious entities.

I imagined textile manufacturing as an act of programming, where behaviours are mixed just as today is done with different features from different yarns.

 

If you can't see the video here's the Vimeo link: Body WIP

June 27, 2014 - No Comments!

The Juan MacLean - A Place Called Space

I am into patterns so this is a very personal thing. Also because it comes from one of my favourite bands so basically, I can't stop listening to this song.

I LOVE the new video by The Juan Maclean and I'm more than looking forward to their new EP.

Enjoy the song and of course, the nice patterns use in the video. It reminded me of the first visualisation engines from the 90's that were included in Winamp and other old music players I had the honor to use back in the day.

Again, enjoy!

June 18, 2014 - No Comments!

There is a new website for my current project here: imminentbody.com . I will be working on it for a few more days so you might encounter differences or mistakes during this first week, I hope you can enjoy it anyway and please email for any questions or comments!

Thanks to the amazing alterstudio for their design and support.

January 16, 2014 - No Comments!

BIG DATA

Come and see the project of MA Textile Futures first year students at the Lethaby Gallery in Central Saint Martins!
How can biology help solve critical issues connected to the explosion of data?
 
If a living material can store data, how do we design with it?

January 9, 2014 - No Comments!

Hello Australis

 

HelloAustralisWEB

 

 

 

 

I am very happy to work with this amazing font for my new project.

Australis is a hybrid font that I wanted to try a while ago and the project I am currently working on for MA Textile Futures was the perfect opportunity to do it. I like its uniqueness and superb design details. It works amazingly in long written pieces and it is super flexible for on screen uses.

Thanks a lot to Daniel Hernández from Latinotype for their support and to Comunas Unidas for their constant -and kind- help and advice.